Works Cited

Primary Sources

 

Books:

 

Brown, H. Rap. Die Nigger Die. 1st. New York: The Dial Press, 1969.

Through this book you feel that America has issues an ultimatum to Black people: you either fight to live or you will live to die. Although I initially found this book rather shocking, I felt it was an essential book in understanding the turmoil of the 1960’s. H.Rap Brown was the Chairman of the Black Power Organization SNCC (Student Nonviolent Condemnation Committee).

 

 

Carmichael, Stokley, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: the Politics of Liberation in

 America. 1st. New York: Vintage Books, 1967.

The authors discuss politics and how Blacks were being taken advantage of. It gives insight of the struggles that they faced and the author’s recommendations for the future.

 

 

Erivn, Sam. Preserving the Constitution! the Autobiography of Senator Sam J. Ervin.

Charlottesville, VA: Lexis Law Publisher, 1984.

Sam Ervin was a segregationist in the 1950’s. He did everything he could as a 1954-1975 Senator to stop integration. In reading this book I learned he opposed civil rights and welfare legislation. If Senator Sam Ervin had his way, blacks would have never voted, gone to white schools, or as in Carl Brashear case, joined the Navy to become the first black Master Chief. He claims seems, that he was not motivated by prejudices but rather by the suspicion of federal involvement. I wanted to use this source to show what a contradicting statement this was coming from a man who authored the Southern Manifesto in 1956 which was a document opposing Brown v Board of Education. He later changed his mind on the Brown decision but continued to oppose forced desegregation.   

 

 

Evans, James C.. "Integration, Differentiation and Refinement." The Negro History

Bulletin 10 April 1960: 151.

In addition to his duties as Civilian Aide to the Secretary of the Army, Evans was made aide to the Secretary of Defense on 29 October 1947. James Evans strongly believed in an integrated military. I felt it was important to know that elected officials had such opposing views on integration.

 

 

Gibson Jr., Truman, and Steven Huntley. Knocking Down Barriers. 1st. Northwestern

University Press, Chicago, Illinois. Sept 2005.

Truman Gibson participated in the successful struggle to desegregate the armed forces.  When he joined the military over 60 years ago, he found that the War Department in Washington DC was just as segregated as the most segregated areas of the South. Through his book of memoirs of his life and how he tried to make a difference helped me understand the tremendous difficulties of an African American in the military.

 

 

Lee, Don L.. Amistad 2. 1st. Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1970.

This book was a collection of poetry by Don Lee. The poem “America Calling Negroes” asks Negroes if you can dance, play football or baseball. If you can nanny, cook, or entertain; other wise your were not wanted and considered dangerous. The powerful message of this poem helped me understand the struggle and pain of the Civil Rights Movement.

 

 

Leiser, Ernest. "For Negroes, It’s a New Army Now." Saturday Evening Post 13

December 1952: 26.

The racial quota, in the disguise of an "acceptable" percentage of Negroes in individual units, continued to operate long after the Army agreed to abandon it.  Learning about racial quotas added a quantitative element to my research.

 

 

Nichols, Lee. Breakthrough the Color Front. 1st. New York: Random House, 1954.

Lee Nichols was a rewrite person for the United Press in Washington and watched many press dispatches pass his desk.  He became fascinated with the war against armed forces segregation.  His access to previously secret files, visits to military bases, and the many interviews he did, made this report quite complete.  Coming from an everyday person, his views were significant in getting a broader look at segregation in the military.

 

 

Ottley, Roi. "My Talk with Talmadge." Bronzeville Magazine (1954).

Roi Ottley interview Georgia Governor Herman E. Talmadge (Served from 1948-1955) and came away with not a doubt in his mind that Herman Talmadge wanted to keep the Negro a second class citizen. Talmage felt the theory of segregation "separate but equal" was a demonstrated failure everywhere in the country.  I wanted to read this interview to better understand the conflict within our government.

 

 

Peterson, Frank. Into the Tiger's Jaw. New York: Presidio Press, 1998.

This was an insightful book about the changes in the military and society during the late early 1960’s. Frank Peterson wanted as a child to be a Marine even though he knew that the opportunities were limited for a black man. He became the first African American pilot, then flag officer, and finally a three-star general in the deeply conservative Marine Corps.

 

 

Reddick, L. D.. The Negro Policy of the American Army since World War II” The

            Journal of Negro History April 1953:194-215

L.D. Reddick warns historians that because of increasingly higher literacy rates and the increase of travel, historians should be bound by honor to report the truth as to how the Negro policy since WWII has changed.  Reading about L.D. Reddick’s concern for accountability among historians gave me a sense of how important this issue was.

 

 

Stillwell, Paul. The Reminiscences Of Master Chief Boatswain’s Mate Carl M. Brashear U.S.

            Navy (Retired).  Annapolis, Maryland: U.S. Naval Institute, 1998.

This is the oral history of Carl Brashear from the U.S. Naval Institute. This source provided excellent documentation of his personal life and his struggle to get doors to open to become a navy diver.   This book clearly shows that Carl Brashear’s story is an example of what an individual can achieve when he is determined to reach his goals.

 

 

Eyewitness Interviews:

 

Brashear, Carl M. Interview with Kentucky Commission on Human Rights  June 2002 MSNBC 26

 July 2006 16 Nov 2006 <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14031320/>.

Upon the death of Carl Brashear MSNBC printed the interview between Carl Brashear and the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights during his induction into the Gallery of Black Kentuckians. This interview gave insight to the hardships Carl Brashear endured. He joined the Navy in 1948 at the age of seventeen, not long after the U.S. military desegregated. Notes were left on his bunk at diving school.  He knew they did not want him to graduate the program. Racism and prejudice would still thrive in the military throughout his military career.  Listening to Carl Brasher during this interview you share in the triumphs as well as the tragedies

 

 

Brashear, Carl M. Interview with Kojo Namby. National Public Radio Member Station

WAMU. Oct. 2000. 15 Dec. 2006 <http://www.npr.org>. This was an interesting interview to listen to. Carl Brashear explained that he worked originally as a cook in the Navy, but desired to do something different. He talked about how he wanted to swim with the "white guys". I felt the racism when he explained how he had gotten in trouble for the swimming with the white guys.  However, the chuckle I heard in his voice set me at ease.

 

 

Brashear, Carl M. Interview with Larry King. King's Interview with Carl Brashear. Larry King Live

Weekend. 2 Dec. 200. 11 Oct. 2006 <http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0012/23/lklw.00.html>. This is a transcript from an interview by Larry King of Carl Brashear and Cuba Gooding Jr. Carl Brashear discusses the challenges he went through to prove to the Navy that he could be a deep sea diver as an amputee.

 

 

Elam, Hattie R. Interview with Michele Norris. National Public Radio. 26 July 2006. 15

Jan. 2007 <http://www.npr.org>. Hattie Elam is an ex wife of Carl Brashear. She explained that Carl was greatly admired but most of all, persistent. He wanted to pave the way for black people to make a difference in life. 

 

 

 

Brashear, Carl M. Interview with Philadelphia NBC 10 News television station. Men of Honor Salutes

Brashear. 6 Apr. 2001. 5 Nov. 2006 <http://www.nbc10.com/news/582229/detail.html>.

Philadelphia television station NBC 10 News interviewed Carl Brashear. Brashear expresses how there are a lot of heroes and legends running our ships right now that aren't being recognized like they should. He expressed that he was not bitter over the treatment he received after his accident even though it clearly was a lack of medical attention, which contributed to the severity of his wounds and ultimately the loss of his leg.

 

 

Brashear, Carl M. Interview with Patricia Radcliffe. The Life of Diver Carl Brashear Has Been an

Inspirational Story." Casemate. 12 August. 2000. 16 Nov. 2006 <http://www-tradoc.army.mil/casemate/stack/020704brasher.htm>.

During this interview with staff writer Patricia Radcliffe, Carl Brashear said that one person can make a change and if you are dedicated, persevere and, most of all, keep a good attitude, you can excel in life. It amazes me that with all of the triumphs and tragedies in Carl Brashear’s life he always seemed to maintain such a positive philosophy on life.

 

 

Webb, Arthur. Interview. Master Diver. 20 June 2001. 13 Feb. 2007

<http://www.masterdiver.com/>. Retired Master Diver Arthur Webb expresses great resentment that the movie Men of honor has portrayed his fellow divers as prejudiced and fouled mouthed. He continued on to help me see that Master Divers were willing to be responsible for not only their lives but the lives of their fellow divers. They were truly men of honor.  I wanted to use this source to show both sides of the issue. 

 

 

Webmaster, Ray. Interview with Shay Edwards. http://www.masterdiver.com/. 13 Feb.

2007. 13 Feb. 2007 <http://www.masterdiver.com/>.

The Master Diver website had many retired Master Divers sharing their stories. I contacted Ray the Webmaster and he shared some information that I have not found in any other source. According to the Webmaster during the opening day showing of the movie Men of Honor, many of the old retired master divers got up and left the because they felt the fiction overpowered the facts. Another interesting notation was that Carl Brashear was married to Naval Officer which was and still is, against the rules.  During my research however, I have found that Carl Brashear retired in 1979 from the U.S. Navy and was employed as a civilian when he married U.S. Navy nurse Hattie R. Elam in 1980 who is now a retired Navy Captain.

 

 

Wilkerson, Ken. Interview. Master Diver. 20 June 2001. 13 Feb. 2007

<http://www.masterdiver.com/>. Retired Master Diver took offence to the fact that Carl Brashear slurred his Alma Mater U.S. Naval Salvage School and "the inference that the other divers were bigots and racist". I felt this interview was important in sowing both sides of the issue using primary sources.

 

 

Online Articles:

 

 

"A Brief History of the Disability Movement." 27 Nov 2006

<http://www.vsarts.org/x537.xml>.

Not only was Carl Brashear a black man, but after his accident he would now be considered disabled. According to the U.S. Census, there are more than 54 million people with disabilities in the United States. Historically, the condition of having a disability has been viewed as tragic.  I used this site to show that the biggest changes within the disability rights movement came with the Civil Rights Movements of the 1960s.

 

 

Black, Retired Commander Gregory. "Remembering Legendary Master Diver Carl Brashear."

Black Military World. 28 February 2007 <http://www.blackmilitaryworld.com>.

Retired Commander Gregory Black is the webmaster for “Black Military World” web site. He has personally met Carl Brashear. Commander Black has a library of books listed on his site about the history of blacks in the military.  This was a valuable source of information to help me with my research by giving me a clearer picture of the constant struggles in the face of discrimination.

 

 

Bronson Sr., Oswald P.. "Eyewitness to Jim Crow." The History to Jim Crow 1 March

2007<http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/Oswald_Bronson.htm>Although Oswald grew up to be a minister and later became President of Bethune-Cookman College and council to the White House on race relations in the 1940’s. Growing up at the same era as Carl Brashear, it was interesting parallel of two black individuals who opportunities were limited because of discrimination yet both obtaining their goal through many triumphs and tragedies.

 

 

Bryant, Erica. "Man of Honor." The Shoreline University of Texas at Arlington

25 Oct 2001 8 Oct 2006 <http://www.theshorthorn.com>.

Overcoming adversity was the focus of Carl Brashear’s visit to the University of Texas at Arlington.  Reading this interview gave me insight to Carl Brashear’s determination to reach his goals. 

 

 

Ecott, Tom. “Ocean Men." Diver Feb issue Feb 2002 7 Nov 2006

<http://www.divernet.com/cgi-bin/home.pl>.

This site demonstrated the challenges Carl Brashear faced to become Master Chief Petty Officer, the highest non-commissioned grade in the US Navy, and to attain the coveted badge of Master Diver. Overcoming tremendous prejudices such as the notion that black men could not swim and that he should have been a cook, he still was determined to fulfill his dream.

 

 

"Desegregation of the Armed Forces: Chronology." Truman Presidential Museum

and Library  National Archives. 1 Nov 2006 <http://www.trumanlibrary.org>.          

This site has links to many documents and chronological timelines of desegregation in the armed forces. This was important to my topic because it demonstrated the slow process of desegregation of the military.

 

 

"Guest Book for Carl Brashear." Legacy.com. Legacy. 7 Dec 2006

<http://www.legacy.com>.  

This is the guest book of when Carl Brashear passed away. People wrote comments who knew Carl Brashear during the time of his military career.  There were heart warming comments of thanks for his perseverance through his triumphs and tragedies.  Still others thanked Carl Brashear for opening doors for them that might not have been opened before.  This collection of personal entries is one of the most emotional and informative entries of my research. The men and women who served with Carl Brashear wanted to express what an honor it was to have had the opportunity to serve their country with him and to thank him for his service.  As for others who knew Carl, there was an overwhelming desire to express what an inspiration he had been.

 

 

Lewis, Rep. Ron. "H. Res. 1019: Honoring the life of Carl Brashear, the first African-American

Navy Master Chief Diver." 109th U.S. Congress (2005-2006) 20 Sept 2006 2 Dec 2006 <http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?tab=main&bill=hr109-1019>.

This is a resolution proposed to honor the life of Carl Brashear.  It was first introduced on September 20, 2006.  It was referred onto the Subcommittee on Military Personnel on Oct 10, 2006.  This was a good source showing that Carl Brashear still had a direct impact on people today.

 

 

"Life As A Salvage Diver." Diving Heritage 24 Aug 2001 19 Sept 2006

<http://www.divingheritage.com>.

Life was not easy at diving school. Some officers and instructors tried everything in their power to get him out of the program. After he submitted his request to go to diving school, he was met with a lot of negative comments. The personnel officer told him that the Navy did not have any "colored" deep sea divers. Therefore, this site was a good demonstration of the prejudice Carl Brashear faced.

 

 

Madalyn, Russell. "Men of Honor." Deep Sea Diving Locker 7 July 2001 21

Nov 2006 <http://members.tripod.com/divinglocker/carlbrashear.htm>.

Although written years after the fact, this article still contains quotes from Carl Brashear.  This site also contains the class photo of Carl Brashear’s Salvage School in Bayonne, NJ 1954.  Also included in this site was a photo of Carl Brashear and his graduating class from Salvage School in Bayonne, NJ, which I used on my website.  The photo shows Carl Brashear as the only Black man in his class.

 

 

"Rehabilitation Act of 1973."  26 Sept. 1973. United States Congress. 10 Jan. 2007

<http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/ycr/REHABACT.HTM>. Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance, and set the stage for enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Section 504 works together with the ADA and IDEA to protect children and adults with disabilities from exclusion, and unequal treatment in schools, jobs and the community.

 

 

Supreme Court of the United States, Brown v Board of Education. 17 May 1954. 5 Nov 2006

 <http://www.nationalcenter.org/brown.html>.

Racial segregation was the normal way of education in the 1950’s. Schools were supposed to be equal to one another but that was far from a true statement. The board of education argument was that segregation prepared the black students for the way life would be for them.  The apposing argument was that the black student were isolated and not receiving an equal education and opportunities like the white students. The Supreme Court ruled that it was dehumanizing for segregation to continue.

 

 

Williams., Edgar. "Eyewitness to Jim Crow." The History to Jim Crow 4 March

           2007<http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/resources/narratives/Edgar_Williams.htm>.

Edgar Williams grew up in the 1940’s on a share cropping farm in North Carolina. It was very moving to read Edgar Williams account of the limitations of a black man in the 1940’s and the struggle for success despite all odds against him. He knew the value of education. Nearly all of his children have a college education.  At the age of 65, Edgar Williams finally had the time for his own education and learn to read. It saddens him deeply for all the blacks who have fought and died for the right to an education and still many don’t take advantage of it. Reading Edgar Williams account of his struggles helped me comprehend the confines in which he grew up in.

 

 

Photographs:

 

 

“A family black family plowing a field walking behind a mule”

Delano, Jack. "Agriculture." USDA Historical Photos 15 Oct 2006

            <http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/histfeat.htm>. Historical photos 

            Image Number: 01di1496

CD8174-496

USDA Photo by: Jack Delano

This photograph was a good example of Carl Brashear’s early life.

 

 

“A rest stop for Greyhound bus passengers on the way from Louisville, Kentucky to

Nashville, Tennessee, with separate accommodations for colored passengers."

<http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/087_disc.html>.
Location: E-5153
Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-62919

 To actually have a sign showing where the colored people were to wait for a bus was unbelievable for me to see. It was another photograph for me to have a glimpse of the prejudices that existed.

 

 

“Black farmers working in the fields”                                                        

Delano, Jack. "Agriculture." USDA Historical Photos 15 Oct 2006

 <http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/histfeat.htm>.

Historical photos Image Number: 00di0952  CD8151-952

This photograph depicts the black farmer working in the fields.  Carl Brashear was born into a sharecropper family.  Showing where Carl Brashear came from easily demonstrated the enormity of his triumphs.  

 

 

"Cabins for Colored."

"Photograph of signs forcing racial discrimination." Library of Congress. 6 Oct 2006

            <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>.

 This site provided a racial discrimination photo collection that I used on my web site. The photo clearly demonstrated racial prejudice.

South Carolina. June 1939.
Marion Post Wolcott, photographer.
"A highway sign advertising tourist cabins for Negroes."  
Location: E-527
Reproduction Number: LC-USF34-51945-D

This was a photograph showing where there were cabins just for Negroes to rent.

 

 

"Colored Dining Room in Rear."

"Photograph of signs forcing racial discrimination." Library of Congress. 6 Oct 2006

            <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>.

            I used this racial discrimination photo on my website.

“On the way from Louisville, Kentucky to Nashville, Tennessee.”

September 1943. Esther Bubley, photographer.

 

 

 

"Establishing the President's committee on equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed

            Services. Truman, President Harry S." 26 July 1948

13 Nov 2006 <http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photos/9981a.jpg>.  

This is an actual photo of the Executive Order 9981 to desegregate the military.  Its value to my website was that it was a visual display of the importance to desegregate the military and how the President had a strong conviction to see it through. 

 

 

 "President Harry Truman Wipes Out Military Segregation." African American

Odyssey

31 July 1948 02 Oct 2006 <http://www.loc.gov/html>.

This was an actual photo of a newspaper proclaiming that President Truman wiped out segregation in the armed forces. The newspaper was the black owned “Chicago Defender”.  Although an executive order had been issued, the process of desegregating the military happened slowly.

 

 

“Plowing.”

            Delano, Jack. “Agriculture.” USDA Historical Photos 15 Oct 2006

            http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/histfeat.htm.  Historical photos

Location: Heard County, Georgia

Carl Brashear was raised in a sharecropping family.  This photo depicts the difficult task of sharecroppers plowing a field during the early 1940’s.

Date: April 1941 USDA Photo by: Jack Delano

 

 

 “Retired Master Chief Carl Maxie Brasher.” Morning Impaired

<http://content.hamptonroads.com>.

This site had a photo of Carl Brashear in a diving suit, which was not easy to find.  This site also is where I learned that Carl Brashear died in the same hospital where he recovered from a shipboard accident in 1966 that cost him his leg.

 

 

"The Rex Theater for colored people."

"Photograph of signs forcing racial discrimination." Library of Congress.

6 Oct 2006

            <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>.

 racial discrimination photo

Leland, Mississippi, in the Delta area. June 1937.
Dorothea Lange, photographer.
 Location: E-915
Reproduction Number: LC-USF34-17417

The photograph that I used from this site easily demonstrates racial discrimination that Carl Brashear was surrounded by.

 

 

 

“Young black farmer working on field.”

Delano, Jack. "Agriculture." USDA Historical Photos 15 Oct 2006  <http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/histfeat.htm>. Historical photos

This photograph was a great example of the early hardships that Carl Brashear faced.  It clearly demonstrates the hard work that poor sharecroppers had and how much Carl Brashear had to overcome.

Image Number: 01di1477
CD8174-477

Date: September 1940

USDA Photo by: Jack Delano

 

 

Speeches and Letters:

 

 

Ansarov, Sonya. "History Making Navy Master Dive Retires." Navy Newsstand

2 Sept 2003 24 Nov 2006 <http://www.navy.mil/search/

This site provided Carl Brashear’s speech upon retiring from the Navy. In reading his speech, you could feel the passion and dedication to overcome the tragedies in his life and celebrate his triumphs with him.

 

 

Batiste, Fred . "Navy master diver speaks to SLU Crowd." Sea Sabers 21 Feb 2003

29 Sept 2006 <http://www.seasabres.com>.

While speaking to the crowd at Southeastern Louisiana University, Carl Brashear mentioned that if a farm boy from Kentucky could realize his dreams, so could anyone.  By using this source I had a better understanding of Carl Brashear’s triumph and tragedies.

 

 

Byrd, Robert.  Letter from Senator Robert Byrd to Senator Bilbo of Mississippi. West Va. 1945.

This letter from Senator Byrd to Senator Bilbo was just discovered a few years ago.  The original letter is not available however the content of the letter has been substantiated by “When Jim Crow Met John Bull” Graham Smith 1987, The Washington Post Eric Pianin Staff writer June 19, 1995, www.usc.edu, www.ou.edu, www.law.fsu.edu, and Child Of The Appalachian Coalfields Robert Byrd 2005, and is considered historically accurate.  In the letter Senator Byrd states:  "with a Negro by my side. Rather I should die a thousand times, and see Old Glory trampled in the dirt never to rise again, than to see this beloved land of ours become degraded by race mongrels, a throwback to the blackest specimen from the wilds."  I used this quote to show the segregationist views during Carl Brashear's time and the lack of Civil Rights.  This quote also is the contrast to Truman's executive order 9981.

 

 

 

King, Martin Luther. "I Have a Dream Speech." Washington, D.C. 28. 28 Aug. 1963. 5

Mar. 2007 <http://www.mlkonline.net/dream.html>.

Martin Luther King was allotted 15 minutes to deliver his short but formal speech about how African Americans suffered attempting to realize their freedom in a discriminatory society, but instead with encouragement he changed his speech to tell the 250,000 crowd about his dream of all people, of all races and colors and backgrounds, sharing in an America marked by freedom and democracy.

 

 

Lewis, John R.. "Speech prepared for the March on Washington, August 1963." The

 Militant 9 September 1963.

John Lewis felt that the current Kennedy administration’s civil rights bill was too little too late. "We march today for jobs and freedom, but we have nothing to be proud of, for hundreds and thousands of our brothers are not here--for they have no money for their transportation, for they are receiving starvation wages…or no wages at all.” “There is not one thing in this bill that will protect our people form police brutality.” This is the same march that Martin Luther King gave his “I have a Dream” speech. John Lewis is currently a congressman for the 5th District of Georgia.

 

 

Wallace, George C. "Inaugural Speech." Montgomery, Alabama. 14 Jan. 1963. 2 Mar.

2007 <http://www.archives.state.al.us/govs_list/inauguralspeech.html>.

Governor Wallace’s January 14, 1963 inaugural speech vowing "segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever" 

 

 

Video/Audio:

 

 

"All Things Considered." National Public Radio 26 July 2006 29 Sept 2006

<http://www.npr.org>.

This is an audio clip of Carl Brashear on the USS Bunker Hill.  Carl Brashear tells his story about battling racism in the newly desegregated U.S. military of the late 1940’s.  

Listening to this audio clip was important in proving the triumphs, tragedies, and individual acts of courage in the life of Carl Brashear.  

 

 

DePauw Web Team, "Don't Let Anyone Steal Your Dream." De Pauw

University News.

3 May 2001. DePauw University News. 15 Sept 2006 <http://www.depauw.edu/news/index.asp?id=11499>.

This site contained audio and video clips.  It was very inspiring to actually hear Carl Brashear talk about the dirt of racism, prejudice and disbelief. He explained his ability to turn “tragedy into triumph” and overstep adversity. The audio clips and videos come from Carl Brashear’s speech given to DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana.   

 

 

Rhem, Staff Sgt. Kathleen T. “Brashear’s Daredevilry Got Him into Hot Water,

Deep Water.”

            Armed Forces Information Services 4 Oct 2000 3 Oct 2006

            <http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Oct2000/n10242000_200010243.html>.

 Listening and watching the audio and video provided on the website were good demonstrations of the prejudices Carl Brashear faced.  How he handled himself throughout this time was inspiring.  Brashear doesn't necessarily think he was better than other African-American sailors before him who had tried to become Navy divers; just wasn't easily deterred.  He felt that people just give up too easily.  Using this article gave me a better understanding of the man who’s tragedy was turned into triumph for himself and for many others.

 

 

Secondary Sources

 

Books:

 

 

Barnartt, Sharon, and Richard Scotch. Disability Protests: Contentious Politics. 2nd.

            Washington D.C.: Galaudet Press, 2001.

This is a catalogue of disability protests over a thirty year period that the authors distinguished between sustained acts and isolated protests.  They discuss the organized attempts to bring social equality through civil rights demonstrations and legislative victories.  I felt it was important to recognize how people took a stand for or against these policies.

 

 

Robbins, Davuid. Men of Honor

            New York, New York: Onyx, 2000

This book provided a good interpretation of Brashear in story form.  It gave an inside view of his life and events that happened. Using this book gave simple understanding of what an average day for Carl Brashear was like.

 

 

Movies:

 

 

Men Of Honor. Dir George Tillman Jr. Perf. Robert De Nero , Cuba Gooding Jr., Charlize

            Theron , Aunjanue Ellis, Hal Holbrook. 2000. DVD. 20th Century Fox, 2004.

The movie “Men of Honor” tell the story of a young uneducated black man’s journey from Navy recruit to Master Chief.  It portrays Carl Brashear life has he endures discrimination, failures and tragedies.  Using this source also tells of the significant triumphs he reached at a time where the military was trying to enforce the end of segregation and unify all branches of the military.

 

 

 

Online Articles:

 

 

"A Brief History of the Disability Movement." 27 Nov 2006

<http://www.vsarts.org/x537.xml>.

According to the U.S. Census, there are more than 54 million people with disabilities in the United States. Historically, the condition of having a disability has been viewed as tragic. This article gave me an over view of the disability movement. As thousands of WWI soldiers returned home, the first vocational rehabilitation acts were passed in the 1920s to provide services to WWI veterans with newly acquired disabilities. But perhaps the biggest changes within the disability rights movement came with the Civil rights Movements of the 1960s.  Carl Brashear fought for the opportunities to be treated for his ability, not for his disability.

 

 

"A Chronology of the Disability Rights Movement."

 <http://www.sfsu.edu/~hrdpu/chron.htm>.

This article had a timeline of the disability rights movement from 1817 to 1996. Being able to see this timeline made me realize just how long to takes to make changes in our society.

 

 

"ADA: A Brief Overview." Job Accommodation Network 6 Nov 2006

18 Nov 2006 <http://www.jan.wvu.edu/links/adasummary.htm>.

On July 26 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law.  It is a wide-ranging legislation intended to make American society more accessible to people with disabilities. This article easily depicts the struggle disabled people face and the necessity of the ADA.

 

 

Bos, Carole D. "The Story of Carl Brashear." Awesome Stories 1998 1-15.

15 Oct 2005 

 <http://www.awesomestories.com>.

This article was fifteen chapters on Carl Brashear, starting with his humble beginnings on a sharecropper’s farm in Kentucky to the racial prejudice he suffered while trying to fulfill his dream.  It keeps you in complete amazement through the loss of his leg to his determination to recover to continue his goal.

 

 

Bowers, Rick. "A Man of Honor." First Step 2001: Living with Limb Difference

11 March 2005 21 Nov 2006

<http://www.amputee-coalition.org/first_step/firststepv2_s3a05.html>.

Carl Brashear’s tenacity and spirit helped him overcome the racism, prejudice, and discrimination.  In this article, it was evident his determination to continue to reach his goals through all of his triumphs and tragedies. Failing his first dive class made Carl Brashear even more determined and he took the class again. When he lost his leg he was committed to gain his mobility again to continue on to obtain his goal of master diver. This article written for an amputee publication made me realize how important his struggle and success was.

 

 

Brown, Holloman Funeral Home and Cemetary. “Carl Maxie Brashear Obituary”

            2006 26 July 15 Oct 2006

<http://obit.hollomon-brown.com/obit>

This was the actual obituary from the Brown Hollman Funeral Home web page stating when the viewing and burial was for Carl Brashear.

 

 

CNN, "The Civil Rights Struggle in Modern Times." The Civil Rights Movement

1997 24 Nov 2006 <http://www.cnn.com/EVENTS/1997/mlk/links.html>.

This web page listed a chronological order of the Civil Rights struggle beginning with 1952 and ending with 1996.  The timeline shows the U.S. Supreme Court declares school segregation unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling, to the Supreme Court rules consideration of race in creating congressional districts is unconstitutional. Carl Brashear struggled everyday with prejudice and discrimination.  He rose above it and fulfilled his desire to become Master Chief.

 

 

 

Dodde, Bert and Brashear, Phillip. "Hall of Fame Carl Brashear."

Diving Heritage Sept 2006 18 Oct 2006.

Diving Heritage with the help of Carl Brashear’s son Phillip, tell the history of Carl Brashear’s struggle through discrimination.  Photos through this source show how he was the only black man in his diving school class.  I found it very interesting to learn that he was helped privately by the diving school instructors after his accident to help him regain his strength to prove that he was able to dive again.

 

 

Dorsey, Jim and Washington, Jack. "Pioneering Navy Diver Carl Brashear Dies in Portsmouth."

            The Virginian-Pilot 26, July 2006 12 Nov 2006.

Carl Brashear, whose refusal to quit despite racism and great physical trauma, died at the age of 75.  After reading this article I had a better appreciation for a man who overcame so much and paved the way for so many. 

 

 

Ebert, Roger. "Men of honor." Roger Ebert Movie Reviews

10 Nov 2000 23 Oct 2006 <http://rogerebert.suntimes.com>.

Carl Brashear graduated diving school with only a 7th grade education.  This article easily demonstrated that obstacles were part of his life.  Overcoming them was why he lived.  This source proved the triumph and tragedy of Carl Brashear’s life.

 

 

Forster, Dave. "Navy Pioneer Brashear's life, career led by determination."

The Virginian-Pilot 30 July 2006 14 Nov 2006 <http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=108380&ran=217257>.

This site had user comments after a short article about Carl Brashear’s determination in pursuing his goal.  Many of the personal comments show how Brashear had inspired people to press forward and not to let prejudice or discrimination stand in their way.  Carl Brashear felt that all people deserved a chance and opportunity to be a valued person in society.

 

 

Furry, Rodney. "Unlikeliest Hero." All Hands Magazine of the US Navy

Feb 2000: 1-4.

Carl Brashear was educated in a small segregated rural town in Kentucky.   Equal opportunities were not exactly the norm in either society or the military. There was little promise for a black military man, not to mention his desire to be a diver.  Carl Brashear’s story of determination is inspiring. This article easily demonstrates that Carl Brashear felt that a man’s potential was more important that the color of his skin.

 

 

"Guest Book-Carl Brashear."

Todays Legacy 31 July 2006 16 Oct 2003 <http://www.legacy.com/GB/GuestbookView.aspx?PersonId=18605729>.

This is the guest book for when Carl Brashear passed away.  It is filled with people’s comments. This source proved to be very insightful to me. It is cited in both primary and secondary categories because some guests did not know Carl Brashear but wanted to express what his life meant to them etc.  This collection of notes was a constant reminder to me of the impact that this man had, not only on individual people, but to society as a whole.

 

 

Kozaryn, By Linda D. “Pentagon Honors Navy's 'Men of Honor'."

American forces Information Services 23 Oct 2000 12 Nov 2006 <http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Oct2000/n10232000_200010231.html>.

Carl Brashear’s legacy addressed issues that are uncomfortable.  Racial Discrimination and disability discrimination are two of the areas that he overcame.  His physical tragedies as well as the triumphs were well addressed in this article.

 

 

Lukens, Ann. "Carl Brasher's Challenges." Hilltop Times 26 Feb 2004 10

Oct 2006 <http://www.hilltoptimes.com/story.asp?edition>.

This article was a good demonstration of the prejudice blacks faced in the military.

 

 

McElrath, Jessica. "African Americans In the Navy." African American History

(2002) 19 Oct 2006 <http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/soldiers/a/navy_

brashear.htm>.

This article depicted the political influence on desegregation. In 1942, recruitment was underway as World War II was being fought. The NAACP again stepped in and asked Frank Knox, the Secretary of the Navy, to accept African American recruits in non-service positions. Knox declined, and the NAACP then asked President Roosevelt to intervene. In June 1942, upon Roosevelt's urgings, the Navy changed its policy. The policy allowed African American volunteers new opportunities in active duty.  Understanding the Navy’s policy change and how people reacted to it was an important source.

 

 

MacGregor, Jr., Morris J.. "Segregation Consequences." Integration of the Armed Forces  6 April

 1979 206-234. 25 Nov 2006

 <http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/integration/IAF-FM.htm>.

Segregation in the military was a problem. The military consisted of 8% blacks, yet they totaled to over 17% of the discipline problems.  This article easily demonstrated the enormity of the problem of segregation in the military.

 

 

 MacGregor, Jr., Morris J.. "Integration of the Armed Forces 1940-1965."

US Army Center of Military History Chapter 9   6 April 1989 234-253.

 9 October 2006 <http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/>.

The Navy addresses a number of issues such as black officers and public images. Of great importance was the fact that the racial practices of the armed forces were a product of the individual service's military traditions. This article goes on to the great difficulty in addressing these issues.

 

 

 

McSweeney, Mike. "Downed Pilot Still Soaring." Army The soldiers Newspaper

2 Nov 2006 15 Nov 2006 <http://www.defence.gov.au/news/armynews>.  

This site tells about the first double amputee to be reinstated to the ADF (Australian Defense Force), Black Hawk pilot Major Glenn Toddhunter was inspired by Douglas Bader, who in turn inspired Carl Brashear.   This article demonstrated the drive to succeed.

 

 

Navy Commendation Medal. 2006. NNDB. 2 Nov 2006

            http://www.nndb.com/honors/291/000043162/

The Navy Commendation Medal is awarded by the U.S. Navy to soldiers who perform acts of heroism, outstanding achievement, or meritorious service. It is often awarded for life-saving efforts and was created in 1944.  Carl Brashear is the recipient of this medal which he received in the hospital while recovering from his leg injury in 1966. Reading about this medal helped me realize the honor it bestows upon the recipients.

 

 

"The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ." NAACP. 5 Sept 2006

 <http://www.naacp.org/>.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is an organization the has 

continued to with great effort to ensure that Africa Americans will be seen and heard in a positive light and continue to fight for the equality for all people. The struggle of social injustice that Carl Brashear endured is what the NAACP works to alleviate.

 

 

Newell, Casandra. "Pioneering Master Diver Carl Brashear."

Cyber Diver News Network 4 Aug 2006 4 Nov 2006 <http://www.cdnn.info/news/industry/i060804.html>.

This article easily depicted Carl Brashear’s determination. Carl Brashear was the first black master navy diver and was also the first amputee to be reinstated to active dive status.

 

 

Newell, Casandra. "Pioneer Master Carl Brashear Laid to Rest." Common Ground

Common Sense. 31 July 2006. 29 Nov 2006 <http://www.commongroundcommonsense.org>.

Carl Brashear represented people with disabilities.  He also represented the US Navy.  This article showed just how much he did to help people change their attitudes about the disabled.  He tried to teach people by his actions that no matter where you are from or what color you are, or if you have both legs, you can achieve your goals.

 

 

Pilot Begins Journey to Get Back Wings." The Orthotic Prosthetic Center 21

May 2004

18 Oct 2006 <http://www.orthoticprostheticcenter.com>.

Major Andrew Lourake is not the first amputee to attempt flying while on active duty in the military; the first amputee, Sir Douglas Bader became one of Britain's highest decorated aces. Throughout the years, there have been a handful of amputees reinstated to active duty in the military. I used this source to show that to date there have been no Navy divers except Carl Brasher reinstated to active duty after an amputation. 

 

 

 Russell, Madeline. "The Carl Brashear Story."

Deep Sea Diving Locker 7 July 2001 13 Oct 2006

<http://members.tripod.com/divinglocker/carlbrashear.htm>.

Gaining official dive status was quite an accomplishment at this time in the military. This article continued to express the racial discrimination faced by black men in the military.  I felt it was critical to comprehend this point of view.

 

 

"Salute To Service: Carl Brashear's Son Remembers His Dad." News Channel 3

28 July 2006 20 Oct 2006 <http://www.wtkr.com/Global/story.asp?S=5211567&nav=menu78_3_3>.

Brashear was the Navy's first black deep sea diver, the first black Master Diver. Following an accident during a salvage operation, one of his legs had to be amputated. Phillip Brashear, Carl Brashear’s son spoke at his father’s funeral. He wanted to salute the service of a man who refused to give up, and who accomplished so many firsts in his lifetime.  Understanding a sons view of his Dad gave a personal perspective of Carl Brashear that I thought was an important.

 

 

Sarkar, Dilip. "Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader." Dilip Sakar MBE 23

Oct 2003

14 Nov 2006 <http://www.dilipsarkarmbe.co.uk/bader.html>.

 Douglass Bader, was the first amputee to be reinstated to active duty in the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force. After WWII, Douglas Bader worked tirelessly for the disabled, whom he sought to inspire, these efforts being recognized by a knighthood in 1976.  Carl Brashear was given a copy of a magazine containing an article about Douglas Bader and his flying abilities as a double amputee. It served as an inspirational story for him during his recovery and demonstrated to me the tremendous dedication for Carl Brashear to turn his tragedy into triumph.

 

 

Schoenherr, Steve. "Men of Honor." 24 11 2000 14 Oct 2006

 <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/filmnotes/menofhonor.html>.

By reading this article I discovered that the1966 accident in on the USS Hoist where Carl Brashear’s dive that leads to recovering the Palomares bomb was far worse than was commonly portrayed. Through this article I learned that the double amputee pilot who had been reinstated to active duty, which Carl Brashear had read about, was a Canadian.    

 

 

Staff Writers, "Reel Face, Real Face." Chasing the Frog May 2000 29 Sept 2006

            <http://www.chasingthefrog.com/reelfaces/menofhonor.php>.

Many personal quotes from Carl Brashear were found on this web site.  Although it was somewhat a movie review, Carl Brashear’s dedication through all of his tragedy definitely turned into triumph for all.  This site gave a personal view into Carl Brashear’s life.

           

 

Stillwell, Paul. "Master Chief Boatswain's Mate Carl Maxie Brashear,                       

             USN (Ret.)." NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER 01 April 2001

            10 Sept 2006 <http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq105-1.htm>.

This is a timeline of Carl Brashear’s life.  It was very helpful in keeping all of the information in the correct order while I assembled my research.  It was impressive to see all of the accomplishments that Carl Brashear achieved while serving in the military.       

 

 

"The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.

2006. Columbia University Press. 7 Dec 2006 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html>.

This was the actual act that insured equal opportunity in housing, education, federal programs, access to public facilities, and many other opportunities for all people.

 

 

Travers, Peter. "Men of Honor." Rolling Stone

Nov 200 11 Oct 2006

<http://www.rollingstone.com>.

Being a black Navy diver fighting racism in the 1950’s was not an easy task. Using this article explained some of the differences between the book titled Men of Honor and actual facts about the life of Carl Brashear.

 

 

US Navy Press Release, "First Black Navy Diver Honored."

The Navy News Nov 2000 17 Oct 2006

<http://www.findarticles.com>.

In this article I learned that Carl Brashear (with a 7th grade education), overcame racial discrimination to not only prove himself to his shipmates and his chain of command to demonstrate that he was worthy of becoming a Navy diver.  

 

 

United States Navy Memorial, "Mark V Diving Helmet and Dress."

US Navy Memorial. 30 Nov 2006

<http://www.lonesailor.org/Mark_1.php>.

This site showed the enormous helmet and suit that the Salvage divers wore.  Statistics were provided on this site also.  For a man with one leg to be able to stand and walk was a true testament to Carl Brashear’s dedication and determination.

 

 

Virginia Pilot, "Black Sailor had to dive to rise above discrimination

Hometown honors Virginia Beach man who hopes movie will be an

inspiration." The Virginian-Pilot 11 Sep 1995 17 Oct 2006 <http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news>.

He had to struggle to get the doors opened to becoming a diver. But Brashear persisted, and in 1953 was accepted to a diving school in Bayonne, N.J. The people there thought he was a cook and were shocked when he told them he was the first black diving student. Nearly half of the thirty-one students in Brashear's group did not finish the course.

 

 

"What Are My VA Benefits?." Military-in-Step 11 Sept 2006 24 Nov 2006

            <http://www.amputee-coalition.org/>.

This site listed a profile of Carl Brashear.  It also listed his achievements in the Navy.  There was a quote on this site from Carl Brashear that I though was especially poignant: “The good Lord changed the Navy, not me. They look at people through a different type of eyes now. I used this site to show that the Navy has changed by not just across-the-board medically discharging people with a disability, because they can still be productive.”

 

 

Wikipedia, "Carl Brashear." Wikipedia. Answers.com. 29 Nov 2006

            <http://www.answers.com/topic/carl-brashear>.

This article had vocabulary links which helped me understand some of the dive terminology.  Carl Brashear earned over twelve Commendation Medals during his military career.  Commitment and perseverance were attributes that Carl Brashear possessed to be able to endure the difficult times he went through.

 

 

 

Interviews:

 

 

Associated Press, "First African-American Navy Master Diver Restored To Service

 As An Amputee." MSNBC 26 July 2006 16 Nov 2006 <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14031320/>.

Phillip Brashear is a pilot in the Army.  When hearing his dad’s health was declining, the Army made special considerations for Phillip to be by his father side for the last two days of his life. Philip Brashear described the character, perseverance and principles his dad possessed. My Dad always said “if you dream it, you should be able to do it.”  This source gave me a personal viewpoint which I felt was important to use.

 

 

Black, Commander Gregory. Retired Navy Commander. 13 Feb 2007

            <http://www.blackmilitaryworld.com>

“Over my career, I've worked with other Black divers, although the numbers were very few. Like me, all are aware of Master Diver Carl Brashear and the hardships and struggles that he endured to pave a way for us to dive.” This is a quote from the Black Military website.

 

 

Shafer, Captain Robert. Commanding Officer NAVSEA Corona. 8 Feb 2007

Commander Shafer and I discussed the past problems and solutions that the US Navy has had with discrimination.  Captain Shafer also explained about being physically fit and the restrictions of some disabilities which would hinder a person’s ability to do his or her job. I felt this interview was important in understanding the military’s point of view in regards to the restrictions of the disabled.

 

 

Sharlon, Michael. 15 Jan 2007

Mr. Sharlon was a former Navy diver. He talked with me about the discrimination he saw during his time in the military.  Mr. Sharlon’s perspective was important in understanding discrimination in the military.